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Development status of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles

Nov 12, 2021

An electric vehicle (EV) is an electrically powered road vehicle. The concept is very broad. Electric vehicles include battery electric vehicles (BEV), hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). Electric vehicles involve many disciplines, which are extensive and complex. Its core technologies include chassis and body technology, drive technology and energy technology. It is a difficult task for new energy vehicle training equipment manufacturers to write an investigation report for this comprehensive subject. This article focuses on battery electric vehicles, and involves the main situations of hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles. This article first introduces the current situation of battery electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles, then focuses on the engineering philosophy of the development of electric vehicles, then explains the structure of battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, and discusses their main technology, namely, driving Technology and energy technology. The conclusion summarizes the technical status and challenges of these electric vehicles.

At present, battery electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell electric vehicles are at different stages of development, facing different challenges and requiring different countermeasures. In order for readers to understand the characteristics of this type of car before reading through the full text, these three main types of characteristics are described in Table 1. It can be seen that the key problem of battery electric vehicles is the battery and its management system. Therefore, battery electric vehicles are mainly suitable for short-range, low-speed communities, because the use of smaller capacity batteries can meet the requirements. Hybrid electric vehicles can meet user requirements, but their cost and system integration optimization are the main issues. Fuel cell electric vehicles have the potential as mainstream vehicles in the future, but their technology is still in the research and development stage, its cost is too high, and the supply of hydrogen and oxygen fuel systems is the main problem.

Let's start with the population and the increase in the number of cars, as shown in Figure 1. In the next 50 years, the global population will increase from 6 billion to 10 billion, and the number of cars will increase from 700 million to 2.5 billion. If these vehicles use internal combustion engines, where will the oil they need come from? How will their exhaust gas be treated? Will the sky always be gray? These questions are forcing people to find sustainable road vehicles for the 21st century.

In a world where environmental and resource issues are increasingly prominent, the accelerated development of electric vehicle technology is precisely to address these issues. From an environmental perspective, electric vehicles can achieve zero or very low emissions in urban transportation. Even considering emissions from power plants that power these electric vehicles, the use of electric vehicles can still significantly reduce air pollution worldwide. From an energy point of view, the energy used by electric vehicles is a reliable, wide-ranging, balanced, and environmentally friendly energy source, such as the use of multiple renewable energy sources. Therefore, it can be foreseen that the development of electric vehicles will have a significant impact on the development of energy, environment, transportation and cutting-edge technologies, the establishment of new industries and economic development.