The Type of New Energy Vehicles
Nov 12, 2021
Pure electric vehicle
A pure electric vehicle (Blade Electric Vehicles, BEV) is a car that uses a single battery as an energy storage power source. It uses the battery as an energy storage power source to provide electric energy to the motor through the battery to drive the motor to run, thereby driving the car.
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) refers to a vehicle whose drive system is composed of two or more single drive systems that can run simultaneously. The driving power of the vehicle depends on the actual driving status of the vehicle. The drive system is provided together. Due to the different components, arrangements and control strategies, hybrid vehicles come in many forms.
Fuel cell electric vehicle
Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) utilizes hydrogen and oxygen in the air under the action of a catalyst. Cars driven by the electrochemical reaction in the fuel cell as the main power source. The fuel cell electric vehicle is essentially a kind of pure electric vehicle, the main difference is that the working principle of the power battery is different. In general, fuel cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy through electrochemical reactions. Hydrogen is used as the reducing agent for the electrochemical reaction, and oxygen is used as the oxidant. Therefore, the earliest developed fuel cell electric vehicles mostly used hydrogen fuel directly. Hydrogen storage can be in the form of liquefied hydrogen, compressed hydrogen, or metal hydride hydrogen storage.
Hydrogen engine car
A hydrogen engine car is a car powered by a hydrogen engine. The fuel used in general engines is diesel or gasoline, and the fuel used in hydrogen engines is gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen engine car is a vehicle that truly achieves zero emissions. It emits pure water, which has the advantages of no pollution, zero emissions, and abundant reserves.
Other new energy vehicles
Other new energy vehicles include those that use super capacitors, flywheels, and other high-efficiency energy storage devices. At present, in my country, new energy vehicles mainly refer to pure electric vehicles, extended range electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles. Conventional hybrid electric vehicles are classified as energy-saving vehicles.
Advantages: 1. After the hybrid power is used, the maximum power of the internal combustion engine can be determined according to the average power required. The engine is relatively small (downsize), and it is working under the optimal working conditions with low fuel consumption and less pollution. Because the internal combustion engine can work continuously, the battery can be continuously charged, so its journey is the same as that of an ordinary car.
2. Because of the battery, it is very convenient to recover the kinetic energy when going downhill.
3. In the prosperous urban area, the internal combustion engine can be shut down and driven by the battery alone to achieve "zero" emissions.
4. With the internal combustion engine, it is very convenient to solve the problems encountered by pure electric vehicles such as energy-consuming air conditioning, heating, and defrosting.
5. You can use existing gas stations to refuel, without having to invest.
6. The battery can be kept in a good working state without overcharging and overdischarging, extending its service life and reducing costs.
7. Due to the multiple power sources, the vehicle can work at the same time, and the power of the vehicle is excellent.
Disadvantages: The system structure is relatively complex; the fuel saving effect of long-distance high-speed driving is not obvious.
Pure electric vehicle
Advantages: The technology is relatively simple and mature, as long as there is power supply can be charged.
Disadvantages: The energy stored per unit weight of the battery is too small, and because the battery of the electric vehicle is more expensive and does not form an economic scale, the purchase price is more expensive; as for the use cost, some trial results are more expensive than the car, and some results are only 1 /7~1/3, which mainly depends on the battery life and local oil and electricity prices.
Fuel cell car
Compared with traditional cars, fuel cell cars have the following advantages:
1. Zero emissions or near zero emissions.
2. Reduce water pollution caused by oil leakage.
3. Reduce the emission of greenhouse gases.
4. The conversion efficiency of the fuel cell is high (about 60%), and the fuel economy of the vehicle is good.
5. Smooth operation and no noise.
Disadvantages: The cost of fuel cells is high, and the cost of use (hydrogen) is also expensive.
Hydrogen powered car
Advantages: The discharge is pure water, which does not produce any pollutants while driving.
Disadvantages: The cost of hydrogen fuel is too high, and the storage and transportation of hydrogen fuel is very difficult in terms of technical conditions, because hydrogen molecules are very small and can easily escape through the housing of the storage device. In addition, the most fatal problem is that the extraction of hydrogen requires electrolysis of water or the use of natural gas, which also consumes a lot of energy. Unless nuclear power is used for extraction, it cannot fundamentally reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Super capacitor car
Advantages: short charging time, large power density, large capacity, long service life, maintenance-free, economic and environmental protection, etc.,
Disadvantages: low energy density, it is difficult to meet the needs of the vehicle, so it is generally used as an auxiliary accumulator; the power output decreases with the length of the driving distance.
From the perspective of the development of new energy vehicles around the world, its power sources mainly include lithium-ion batteries, nickel-metal hydride batteries, fuel cells, lead-acid batteries, and supercapacitors. Supercapacitors mostly appear in the form of auxiliary power sources. The main reason is that these battery technologies are not fully mature or have obvious shortcomings. Compared with traditional cars, there are many gaps in terms of cost, power, and cruising range. This is also an important reason for restricting the development of new energy vehicles.
Hybrid refers to those models that use traditional fuel and are equipped with electric motors/engines to improve low-speed power output and fuel consumption. According to the different types of fuel, it can be divided into gasoline hybrid and diesel hybrid. In the domestic market, the mainstream of hybrid vehicles are gasoline hybrids, and diesel hybrid models in the international market are also developing rapidly.
Pure electric vehicle
As the name implies, pure electric vehicles are mainly powered by electric vehicles. Most of the vehicles are directly driven by electric motors. Some vehicles have electric motors installed in the engine compartment, and some directly use wheels as rotors of four electric motors. The difficulty lies in power storage technology.
Fuel cell car
A fuel cell vehicle refers to a vehicle that uses hydrogen, methanol, etc. as fuel, generates electricity through a chemical reaction, and is driven by a motor. The energy of the battery is directly converted into electrical energy through the chemical action of hydrogen and oxygen, rather than through combustion. The chemical reaction process of the fuel cell will not produce harmful products, so the fuel cell vehicle is a pollution-free car. The energy conversion efficiency of the fuel cell is 2 to 3 times higher than that of the internal combustion engine. Therefore, from the perspective of energy use and environmental protection, the fuel cell vehicle is An ideal vehicle.
Hydrogen powered car
Hydrogen-powered vehicles are a vehicle that truly achieves zero emissions. It emits pure water. It has the advantages of no pollution, zero emissions, and abundant reserves. Therefore, hydrogen-powered vehicles are the most ideal alternative to traditional vehicles. Compared with traditional power cars, the cost of hydrogen-powered cars is at least 20% higher. China Changan Automobile completed the ignition of China's first high-efficiency zero-emission hydrogen internal combustion engine in 2007, and exhibited China's first hydrogen-powered concept sports car "Hydrogen Range" at the 2008 Beijing Auto Show.
The gas composition is single, the purity is high, it can be mixed with air and burned completely, the emission of CO and particles is low, and the engine has good starting and running performance at low temperature. The disadvantages are that its transportation performance is worse than that of liquid fuel, the volumetric efficiency of the engine is low, the ignition delay is longer and the power performance is reduced. Most of these vehicles use dual fuel systems, namely a compressed natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas system and a gasoline or diesel combustion system, which can easily transition from one system to another. Such vehicles are mainly used for urban buses.
Cars that replace petroleum fuels with methanol.
Using air as an energy carrier, an air compressor is used to compress the air to more than 30MP and then stored in an air storage tank. When the car needs to be started, the compressed air is released to drive the starting motor. The advantages are no emissions and less maintenance. The disadvantages are the need for power supply, air pressure (energy output) attenuation as the driving distance increases, and the safety of high-pressure gas.
Flywheel energy storage car
The flywheel's inertial energy storage is used to store the residual energy of the engine when it is not at full load and the energy of the vehicle when it grows downhill and slows down. It is fed back to a generator to generate electricity, and then drives or accelerates the flywheel to rotate. The flywheel uses a magnetic suspension method and rotates at a high speed of 70,000 r/min. As an aid in hybrid vehicles, the advantages are improved energy efficiency, light weight, high energy storage, fast energy in and out response, and low maintenance and long life. The disadvantage is high cost and motor vehicle steering will be affected by the flywheel gyro effect.
Super capacitor car
Supercapacitors are capacitors that use the principle of electric double layer. Under the action of the electric field generated by the charges on the two polar plates of the supercapacitor, opposite charges are formed at the interface between the electrolyte and the electrodes to balance the internal electric field of the electrolyte. This positive and negative charges are between two different phases The contact surface is arranged in opposite positions with a very short gap between positive and negative charges. This charge distribution layer is called an electric double layer, so the capacitance is very large. (This car has been used for the 2010 Shanghai World Expo Park Expo Line)
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